OVERVIEW OF 80 TESTS.

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Test overview

The sight tests included in PASKAL 3D are divided into ten different categories. Every test has a clear identification and is briefly explained.

Acuity tests

Acuity tests

Standard acuity test

This test is an element of the basic sequence. On one side acuity, cylinder axis and fine cylinder size are tested on round optotypes and contrast sight according to Baylie Lovie. If the left optical test object can be recognised in the same line despite minimised contrast, then the contrast sight is correct.

Binocular fine-tuning

This test is an element of the basic sequence and serves the fine comparison of the sphere-cylindrical combination at the end of the refraction designation.

Test 8a Visus

This test is an element of the basic sequence and serves to fine adjust the sphere-cylinder combination at the end of the refraction.

EyeChart

The tiered acuity line allows a display of all acuity sizes on one page.

Optotypes, line by line

Vergence width measurement test according to the 21 OEP program.

Line optical test objects presentation

It can be necessary to display the optical test objects in a larger size, particularly for the visually impaired.

Individual optical test objects presentation

Optotypes per acuity level can be shown individually here. This is particularly helpful and constructive for people with poor visual performance.

Eyesight test for driving

 

Landolt rings in acuity level 0.7

Visual impairment EyeChart

All visual acuity levels can be offered on one chart.

Cylinder tests

Cylinder tests

Monocular aureola, 360°

This test is used in the cylinder fog method, or as a screening test for (remaining) astigmatism. The time multiplied by 30° results in the axis of the correction cylinder.

Binocular aureola, horizontal separation

With this aureola a test for astigmatism under binocular conditions is carried out in order to examine cyclophoric rolling. The distances between the lines are 15° each.

Binocular fan chart, vertical split

This aureola serves to test the astigmatism under binocular conditions for the optimised determination of the cylinder size and axis. The distances between the lines are 30° each.

Monocular aureola according to Zeiss, 180°

This is the basic test of the cylinder fog method, the axes given are axes of the correction cylinder.

Astigmatism test table

This is a rough test for the inspection of an astigmatism in four axis positions.

Punkteschaar, alveolar

This astigmatism image is used to compare the astigmatism in axis and size.

Punkteschaar, circular

This astigmatism image is used to compare the astigmatism in axis and size.

Fine-tuning

Fine-tuning

PASKAL Test

This test is an element of the basic sequence. The right test half is for the right eye and the left half for the left eye. With a weak central fusion lock it serves the concluding fine-tuning of sphere, axis and cylinder.

PASKAL Test 2

The right test half is for the right eye and the left half for the left eye. With a weak central fusion lock, it is used for the concluding fine-tuning of sphere, axis and cylinder.

Two-line comparison test

The two-line comparison test serves the creation of blacking parity in order to reach the refraction balance.

Schendel test

Fine-tuning of the cylinder axis and size can be carried out under binocular conditions with the Schendel test.

Three-line comparison test

The three-line comparison test serves the creation of blacking parity with the middle line as a fusion lock in order to attain the refraction balance.

Cross pattern test

The cross pattern test is carried out in a monocular manner and serves the spherical fine-tuning with the stable cross cylinder.

Light spot

With the light spot it can be determined if nocturnal myopia is present.

Red/green tests

Red/green tests

Three-line red/green test

The three-line red/green test is carried out in a monocular manner and serves the spherical fine-tuning for the setting level with freely adjustable acuity levels.

Red/green test, round optical test object

This red/green test is carried out in a monocular manner and serves the spherical fine-tuning for the setting level with two acuity levels and round optical test objects.

Cowen test

The Cowen test is used for spherical fine-tuning for the setting level with weak fusion locking; the separation takes place from top to bottom.

Red/green test, classic

The classic red/green test is carried out in a monocular manner and serves the spherical fine-tuning with an oval.

Bichrom balance test

The Bichrom balance test is carried out binocularly and is used for spherical fine-tuning for the setting level with weak fusion locking; the separation takes place from vertical to horizontal.

MKH

MKH

Cross test

The cross test is carried out binocularly and serves to uncover a fully compensated motor refractive balance or an FD 1.

Hook test, vertical

The vertical hook test serves to uncover a sensory part of a hypertropia and can also be used as a test for aniseikonia.

Hook test, horizontal

The horizontal hook test serves to uncover a sensory part of a horizontal phoria.

Stereo triangle test

With the stereo triangle test the fine-tuning of an FD 2 can be carried out with stereo delay.

Stereo triangle test 10

Stereo test with 10mm parallaxes for narrow Panum's areas for fine-tuning an FD 2 in case of stereo delay.

Valence test according to Haase

The isovalence of both eyes is tested in sight direction with the valence test. The gradations of the prevalence are 20%, 60% and 100%.

D10

Stollenwerk’s stereo test with logarithmically graded parallaxes from 5' to 4.8”, randomisable, for determining the stereo critical angle.

Stereopsis test with graded parallaxes: 5' 4' 3'

This stereopsis test serves to check the quality of depth perception; 5' 4' 3'

Stereopsis test with graded parallaxes: 2' 1' 0.5'

This stereopsis test serves to check the quality of depth perception; 2' 1' 0.5'

Five-line stereopsis test with graded parallaxes: 5' 4' 3' 2' 1'

This stereopsis test serves to check the quality of depth perception; 5' 4' 3' 2' 1'

Pointer test, vertical

The vertical pointer test serves to uncover a sensory part of a aniseikonia.

Pointer test, horizontal

The horizontal pointer test serves to uncover a sensory part of a horizontal phoria.

Double pointer test

The double pointer test can check for rolling or anamorphic distortion.

Phoria tests

Phoria tests

Cross test, L-shaped separation

The cross test is used binocularly and serves to uncover a fully compensated motor refractive balance or an FD 1.

PASKAL Cross test

Cross-test, horizontally and vertically separated, with central fusion locking. This test releases the sensoric fusion if a motoric fusion is found.

Cross test according to Grolman

This test is an element of the basic sequence. The motor part is found with central locking, which releases a sensory part.

Schober test, black/white

With the black/white Schober test it can be determined if heterophoria is present.

Schober test, red/green

The red/green Schober test serves to test for heterophoria. The anaglyph separation is ajar yet polarised.

Stereo tests

Stereo tests

2D background

This test is an element of the basic sequence. The background is first offered and explained in 2D, then in 3D. It should not draw further attention to itself in the following tests.

3D background

This test is an element of the basic sequence. The background is first offered and explained in 2D, then in 3D. It should not draw further attention to itself in the following tests.

Balloon test

This test is an element of the basic sequence. It offers a decisive aid for a prismatic correction.

Stereopsis test with graded parallaxes: 7' 6' 5' 4' 3' 2' 1' 0.5'

This test is an element of the basic sequence. The stereo depth is only given in one direction.

Stereopsis test with graded parallaxes: -7' 6' -5' 4' -3' 2' -1' 0,5'

This test is an element of the basic sequence. The stereo depth is given in both directions.

Stereopsis test with graded parallaxes: 8' 7' 6' 5' 4' 3' 2' 1'

The stereo depth is only given in one direction with limited acuity.

Stereopsis test with graded parallaxes: -8' 7' -6' 5' -4' 3' -2' 1'

The stereo depth is given in both directions with limited acuity.

Contrast tests

Contrast tests

Variable contrast test according to Pelli-Robson

The contrast test according to Pelli-Robson is used for checking contrast vision with Sloan letters for regular vision.

Screening tests

Screening tests

Dominance test

This test is an element of the basic sequence. It is switched on without explanation and questions are asked about the object in the balloon. Dominance is checked by switching the eye allocation.

Ishihara test 1

The Ishihara colour tables serve to uncover red/green or blue/yellow amblyopia.

Ishihara test 2

The Ishihara colour tables serve to uncover red/green or blue/yellow amblyopia.

Ishihara test 3

The Ishihara colour tables serve to uncover red/green or blue/yellow amblyopia.

Ishihara test 4

The Ishihara colour tables serve to uncover red/green or blue/yellow amblyopia.

Ishihara test 5

The Ishihara colour tables serve to uncover red/green or blue/yellow amblyopia.

Ishihara test 6

The Ishihara colour tables serve to uncover red/green or blue/yellow amblyopia.

Ishihara test 7

The Ishihara colour tables serve to uncover red/green or blue/yellow amblyopia.

Ishihara test 8

The Ishihara colour tables serve to uncover red/green or blue/yellow amblyopia.

COM Visus Tests

COM Visus Tests

COM Visus - Start

3D opening image for guidance.


COM Visus - Day Bicycle

View from the automobile with bicycle rider (will become important when testing mesopic vision).

 

COM Visus - Day Sign

Road sign gets closer in logarithmically-defined visual acuity. Can be compared to static visual acuity.

 

COM Visus - Day Car

Logarithmically-defined license plate of a vehicle driving ahead at twilight. Can be compared to static visual acuity.

 

COM Visus - Twilight Bicycle

View from the automobile with bicycle rider at twilight. Checking the test person's adaptation state (room must be darkened).

 

COM Visus - Twilight Matching

A comparison of the sphero-cylindrical combination can be done at the three dots' circle of confusion. Recommendation: insert aberration value for a large pupil (room must be darkened).

 

COM Visus - Twilight BichromeBalanceTest

Comparison of a twilight ametropia (room must be darkened).

 

COM Visus - Twilight Car

Logarithmically-defined license plate of a vehicle driving ahead at twilight. Can be compared to photopic visual acuity (room must be darkened).

 

COM Visus - Night Bicycle

View from the automobile with bicycle rider at twilight. Checking the test person's adaptation state (room must be darkened).

 

COM Visus - Night Matching

A comparison of the sphero-cylindrical combination can be done at the three dots' circle of confusion. Recommendation: insert aberration value for a large pupil (room must be darkened).

 

COM Visus - Night BichromeBalanceTest

Comparison of ametropia in a dark environment (room must be darkened).

 

COM Visus - Night Car

Logarithmically-defined vehicle license plate driving ahead at twilight. Can be compared to photopic visual acuity (room must be darkened).

 

COM Visus - Night Pedestrian View

Demonstration of glare sensitivity (room must be darkened).